1. Beatings - Torture Method where the accused is beaten physically and brutally to death.
2. Binding/ Contorting - Forcefully bends the accused body to inflict pain.
3. Blinding (light)
4. Boiling to death
5. Bone Breaking - Severely breaks every joints and bones in the accused body.
6. Branding - to burn the convicted or branding it with a hot iron. Brand marks have also been used as a punishment for convicted criminals, combining physical punishment, as burns are very painful, with public humiliation (greatest if marked on a normally visible part of the body) which is here the more important intention, and with the imposition of an indelible criminal record. Robbers, like runaway slaves, were marked by the Romans with the letter F (fur); and the toilers in the mines, and convicts condemned to figure in gladiatorial shows, were branded on the forehead for identification.
7. Execution by burning - has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). This method of execution fell into disfavor among governments in the late 18th century; today, it is considered cruel and unusual punishment . The particular form of execution by burning in which the condemned is bound to a large stake is more commonly called burning at the stake. According to the Talmud, the "burning" mentioned in the Bible was done by melting lead and pouring it down the convicted person's throat, causing immediate death.
8. Castration (In tagalog - Kinakapon)
Castration (also referred to as: gelding, neutering, fixing, orchiectomy, and orchidectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testicles. In common usage the term is usually applied to males. Also applicable to females.
10. Crucifixion - (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross, from prefix cruci-, cross, + verb ficere, fix or do, variant form of facere, do or make ) is an ancient method of execution, whereby the condemned person is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (of various shapes) and left to hang until dead.
11. Crushing / Pressing
Peine forte et dure (Law French for "hard and forceful punishment") was a method of torture formerly used in the common law legal system, where a defendant who refused to plead ("stood mute") would be subjected to having heavier and heavier stones placed upon his or her chest until a plea was entered, or as the weight of the stones on the chest became too great for the condemned to breathe, fatal suffocation would occur.(Note in some cases: They use elephants to crushed the accused.)
12. Denailing is a form of torture that consists of the removal of the toe nails or finger nails.
As nails are attached to the skin of the fingers and toes, this can cause significant, and often excruciating pain. Usually denailing is administered with pliers, which remove the nails completely. Other variations use needles, or metal implements, which are inserted under the nails causing extreme pain, but no lasting damage.
Medieval German witch-hunters conducted this torture with rough wooden skewers dipped in boiling sulfur. A number of such skewers were slowly driven into the flesh under the prisoner's toenails. When enough skewers had been driven home to pry each nail loose from its bed, the nail was torn out at the root with a pair of pliers.
13. Disfigurement is the state of having one's appearance deeply and persistently harmed medically, as from a disease, birth defect, or wound. Deliberate mutilation resulting in physical disfigurement has also been practiced by many cultures throughout human history for religious or judicial purposes. During the Byzantine Empire, the emperor was considered God's vice regent on Earth, and as such the physical wholeness of his person was an essential complement to the perfection of Heaven. For this reason, many deposed emperors were blinded, had their noses cut off, or their tongue split by their successors, as these permanent disfigurements disqualified them from ever reclaiming the throne.
14. Drowning - In Europe, drowning was used -- more often than hanging, even -- as capital punishment, at least for a time. In fact, during the Middle Ages, a sentence of death was read using the words "cum fossa et furca," or "with drowning-pit and gallows." Commonly, women who were convicted of theft were drowned . Furthermore, drowning was used as a way to determine if a woman was a witch. The idea was that witches would float and the innocent would drown. For more details, see trial by drowning. It is understood that drowning was used as the least brutal form of execution, and was therefore reserved primarily for women, although favorable men were executed in this way as well.
15. Dunking - is a form of torture and punishment that was applied to scolds and supposed witches.
In a trial by ordeal, supposed witches were immersed into a vat of water or pond, and taken out after some time, and given the ability to confess. If he or she confessed, they were killed. If he/she did not confess, he/she was submerged again. This process usually was repeated until the victim drowned or gave up and let themselves be executed in another way (hanging or, rarely, burning). Also, if they had their hands/feet tied, they would be left under water. If they floated they were guilty of witchcraft, if they sank they were innocent but had usually drowned anyway.
16. Electrocution - form of torture where the accused is shocked w/ high voltage of electricity that can severely burn the organs which results to death.
17. Flagellation - is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, "whip") the human body. Specialized implements for it include rods, switches and the cat-o-nine-tails. Typically, whipping is performed on unwilling subjects as a punishment; however, flagellation can also be submitted to willingly, or performed on oneself, in religious or sadomasochistic contexts.
18. Flaying/Skinning - Flaying of humans is used as a method of torture or execution, depending on how much of the skin is removed. This article deals with flaying in the sense of torture and execution. This is often referred to as "flaying alive". There are also records of people flayed after death, generally as a means of debasing the corpse of a prominent enemy or criminal, sometimes related to religious beliefs (e.g. to deny an afterlife); sometimes the skin is used, again for deterrence, magical uses etc. ( scalping).
Flaying is distinct from flagellation in that flaying uses a sharp instrument, typically some knife, in an attempt to remove skin (where the pain is incidental to the operation), whereas flagellation is any corporal punishment that uses some type of whip, rod or other sharp implement in order to cause physical pain (where the possible removal of some skin is incidental to the operation). In colloquial usage, the two terms are sometimes confused.
19. Force-feeding - which in some circumstances is also called gavage, is the practice of feeding a person or an animal against their will.
Force-feeding by naso-gastric tube may be carried out in a manner that can be categorised as torture[who?], as it may be extremely painful and result in severe bleeding and spreading of various diseases via the exchanged blood and mucus, especially when conducted with dirty equipment on a prison population. Large feeding pipes are traditionally used on hunger striking prisoners whereas thin pipes are preferred in hospitals. Administering nutrients by intravenous drip is relatively painless.
Force-feeding of humans was a common practice in the USSR. A brief, first-person account of a force-feeding session given by Vladimir Bukovsky describes the procedure in detail: "The feeding pipe was thick, thicker than my nostril, and would not go in. Blood came gushing out of my nose and tears down my cheeks, but they kept pushing until the cartilages cracked. I guess I would have screamed if I could, but I could not with the pipe in my throat. I could breathe neither in nor out at first; I wheezed like a drowning man — my lungs felt ready to burst. The doctor also seemed ready to burst into tears, but she kept shoving the pipe farther and farther down. Only when it reached my stomach could I resume breathing, carefully. Then she poured some slop through a funnel into the pipe that would choke me if it came back up. They held me down for another half-hour so that the liquid was absorbed by my stomach and could not be vomited back, and then began to pull the pipe out bit by bit."
Force-feeding of pernicious substances may be used as a form of torture and/or physical punishment. While in prison in northern Bosnia in 1996, some Serbian prisoners have described being forced to eat paper and soap
Sometimes it has been alleged that prisoners are forced to eat foods forbidden by their religion. The Washington Post has reported that Muslim prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison under the U.S.-led coalition described in sworn statements having been forced to eat pork and drink alcohol, both of which are strictly forbidden in Islam.
Other prisoners described being forced to eat from toilets.
19. Garote- The garrote particularly refers to the execution device used by the Spaniards until the end of Francisco Franco's dictatorship as recently as 1974. In Spain, it was abolished, as well as the death penalty, in 1978 with the new constitution. Originally, it was an execution where the convict was killed by hitting him with a club (garrote in Spanish). Later, it was refined and consisted of a seat to restrain the condemned person, while the executioner tightened a metal band around his neck with a crank or a wheel until suffocation of the condemned.
20. Genital Mutilation
21. A Glasgow smile - (also known as an Anna grin, Chelsea grin or Chelsea smile) is a nickname for the malicious practice of cutting a victim's face from the edges of the mouth to the ears, often using a credit card to hold the mouth open in modern times: the cut - or its scars - form an "extension" of what resembles a smile. Sometimes to further hurt or even kill the victim, he or she would then be stabbed or kicked, most notably in the stomach (or in case of kicking, the groin), so that the face would be ripped apart when the victim screamed. The practice originated in the Scottish city of Glasgow, which gave it its name. It also became popular in Chelsea, London (where it is known as a "Chelsea grin") and other areas of Britain, for gangs hoping to leave a message to rival gang members. If cut deep enough, the victim can likely bleed to death.
22. Hamstringing - is a method of crippling a person so he or she cannot walk properly, by cutting the two large tendons at the back of the knees. A victim of this cannot stand properly, walk or run once the hamstring tendons have been cut. The victim is limited to use of the muscles on the top of the thigh for controlling the legs.
23. Hanging (Bitay)
24. Impalement - Impalement as a method of torture and execution involves a person being pierced with a long stake. The penetration could be through the sides, through the rectum, through the vagina, or through the mouth. This method leads to a painful death; sometimes taking days. The stake would often be planted in the ground, leaving the impaled person suspended to die.
In some forms of impalement, the stake would be inserted so as to avoid immediate death, and would function as a plug to prevent blood loss, thus extending the person's agony for as many as three days. After suitable preparation of the victim, including public torture and rape, the victim was stripped and an incision was made in the groin between the genitals and rectum. A stout pole with a blunt end was inserted. The blunt end would push vital organs to the side where a sharp end would pierce them, hastening death. A conveniently suitable branch was often used.
The pole would often come out of the body at the top of the sternum and be placed against the lower jaw so that the victim would not slide farther down the pole. Often, the victim was hoisted into the air after partial impalement. Gravity and the victim's own struggles would cause them to slide down the pole. Death could take many days.
25. Kneecapping- is a form of malicious wounding, often as extralegal punishment or torture, in which the victim is injured in the knee, usually using a firearm to damage the knee joint and kneecap. This practice was common among paramilitaries in Italy and Northern Ireland. Contrary to popular belief, the patella is usually not injured in these incidents; rather damage to soft tissues that include nerves and arteries is the primary issue.
26. Keelhauling - was a severe form of corporal punishment meted out to sailors at sea. The sailor was tied to a rope that looped beneath the vessel, thrown overboard on one side of the ship, and dragged under the ship's keel to the other side. As the hull was often covered in barnacles and other marine growth, this could result in cuts and other injuries. This generally happened if the offender was pulled quickly. If pulled slowly, his weight might lower him sufficiently to miss the barnacles but might result in his drowning.
27. Mancuerda - was a method of torture. A tight cord was wound around the arms of the condemned. The executioner would then throw his entire weight backwards, or the pressure would be exerted by a lever.
The cord cut through skin and muscle directly to the bone. Additional pain was produced by the fact that the body of the prisoner was stretched as in a rack, and the belt or girdle attached to the waist also contributed further to the suffering.
The procedure was repeated six or eight times, on different parts of the arms. People subjected to such torture usually fainted from its effects.
28. Picquet - The punishment of the picquet required extremely simple equipment, to wit, a stake with one end in the ground and other, exposed end, facing upward. The exposed end would be sharpened to a rounded point. The malefactor, typically a junior officer who had disobeyed orders, was confined in a most unusual fashion. One thumb was suspended from a tree, while the opposite naked foot (in this instance, the right) was balanced atop the stake. The point of the stake atop which the foot rested was sufficiently sharp to cause considerable discomfort but insufficient to penetrate the flesh or separate bones. By relieving pressure from his foot, the prisoner placed all of his weight on the suspended thumb, imposing untoward muscular strain thereupon; whereas, by relieving tension from his thumb, the prisoner exposed his foot to the full effect of the picquet, engendering torturous agony as the sharpened end ground relentlessly into the sole of his foot—or his heel, were he clever enough to position himself so that the heavier, less-sensitive flesh of the heel was directly exposed to the picquet.
29. Pitch Capping - The process involved pouring hot pitch, or tar (mainly used at the time for lighting purposes), into a conical shaped paper "cap", which was forced onto a bound suspect's head and then allowed to cool. Less elaborate versions included smearing a cloth or piece of paper with pitch and pressing onto the head of the intended victim. The "pitchcap" was then torn off, taking lumps of skin and flesh with it which usually left the victim disfigured for life.
The torture was usually preceded by the crude shearing of the victim's hair, and many accounts report that ears were often partly or fully severed during the cutting. Refinements to the torture included unbinding the victim's feet to allow the spectacle of them running about in agony and in some cases, deliberately smashing their own heads in an attempt to end the torment. Another variation involved adding turpentine or gunpowder to the "pitchcap" when cooled then setting it alight.
30. Strappado - is a form of torture in which the victim's hands are first tied behind their back, and then he or she is suspended in the air by means of a rope attached to wrists, which most likely dislocates both arms. Weights may be added to the body to intensify the effect and increase the pain.
32. Tickle torture - is a supposed form of torture where a victim is subjected to tickling over a prolonged period of time. Often the victim is held down, or otherwise restrained during this. The person conducting the torture moves their fingers, or an object such as a feather over the victim's body, which is intended to make them laugh.
B. Torture Devices
1. Boot - was an instrument of torture and interrogation designed to crush the foot and leg. The boot has taken many forms in various places and times. Common varieties include the Spanish boot and the Malay boot. One type was made of four pieces of narrow wooden board nailed together. The boards were measured to fit the victim's leg. Once the leg was enclosed, wedges would be hammered between the boards, creating pressure. The pressure would be increased until the victim confessed or lost consciousness.
2. A Scold's bridle (also the brank or branks) was a torture device for women, resembling an iron muzzle or cage for the head with an iron curb projecting into the mouth and resting precariously atop the tongue. The curb was frequently studded with spikes so as to cruelly torture the tongue if it dared stir: with the tongue lying calmly in place, it inflicted a minimum of pain.
3. Brazen bull or the Sicilian bull, is an execution/torture device designed in ancient Greece.
Perillos of Athens, a brass-founder , proposed to Phalaris, the tyrant of Akragas, Sicily, the invention of a new means for executing criminals; accordingly, he cast a bull, made entirely of brass, hollow, with a door in the side. The condemned were shut in the bull and a fire was set under it, heating the metal until it became "yellow hot" and causing the person inside to roast to death. So that 'nothing unseemly might spoil his feasting', Phalaris commanded that the bull be designed in such a way that its smoke rose in spicy clouds of incense. The head of the ox was designed with a complex system of tubes and stops so that the prisoner's screams were converted into sounds like the bellowing of an infuriated bull. It is also said that when the bull was reopened, the scorched bones of the remains shone like jewels and were made into bracelets.
4. The Breaking wheel (also known as the Catherine wheel) was a torturous capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for public execution by cudgeling to death.
5. Crocodile Shears was an instrument of torture used in late medieval Europe and typically reserved for regicides, viz., those who attempted (and, perhaps, succeeded) to assassinate the king. Made of iron, the shears were based upon the concept of a pincers, but—instead of standard jaws or blades—ended in a pair of hemicylindrical blades that, when closed together, formed a long, narrow tube. The insides of the blades were generously lined with teeth or spikes. After being heated red-hot, the crocodile shears were applied to the erect penis,which—once exposed to sufficient tension—was torn from the prisoner's body.
6. The Heretic's Fork was a torture device, loosely consisting of a length of metal with two opposed bi-pronged "forks" as well as an attached belt or strap.
One end was pushed under the chin, and the other into the sternum, the strap fixing the device to the neck. This effectively immobilized the head at a total extension of the neck, and caused great pain
7. Instep borer was a medieval German instrument of torture that externally resembled an iron boot. It was hinged to permit the free insertion and removal of the bare foot. A crank projected from a housing over the instep, which concealed a long, thick, serrated iron blade, grooved so as to inflict maximum damage and promote liberal blood flow.
Turning the crank slowly advanced the blade into the boot, punching a hole through the center of the instep. The resultant wound was so large that it was not unusual for the prisoner to die of toxemia soon after
8. Iron maiden (German Eiserne Jungfrau) is a torture device, usually an iron cabinet, with a hinged front. It usually has a small closable opening so that the torturer can interrogate the victim and torture or kill a person by piercing the body with sharp objects (such as knives, spikes or nails), while he or she is forced to remain standing. The condemned would bleed profusely and weaken slowly, eventually dying because of blood loss, or perhaps asphyxiation. Most iron maidens were made so the sharp points did not pierce vital organs, thus not immediately killing a person, in order to drag out the torturous death. The process involved the victim being locked inside the device by heavy padlocks, and was usually checked on every few hours to see whether the victim had died.
9. The Judas Chair is a pyramid-shaped seat. The victim was placed on top of it, with the point inserted into their anus, vagina or scrotum, then very slowly lowered by ropes. Some theories suggest that the intended effect was to stretch the orifice over a long period of time, or to slowly impale. The victim was usually naked, adding to the humiliation already endured.
Other sources describe a different way of use, stating the ability to raise or lower the victim can change the pressure. The pyramid shaped seat was able to stretch the anus or the vagina, but the point of the pyramid may have been used to cause pain by pressing against the inside of the orifice. This contrasts to the stretching theory, in that the actual torture was caused not by the stretching of the vagina or anus, but by the different effects achieved by positioning the victim against the pyramid's point. Additionally, stretching of the anus or vagina could result in rips and tears causing pain and even death.
10. The Rack is a torture device that consists of an oblong rectangular, usually wooden frame, slightly raised from the ground, with a roller at one, or both, ends, having at one end a fixed bar to which the legs were fastened, and at the other a movable bar to which the hands were tied. The victim's feet are fastened to one roller, and the wrists are chained to the other.
As the interrogation progresses, a handle and ratchet attached to the top roller are used to very gradually stepwise increase the tension on the chains, inducing excruciating pain. By means of pulleys and levers this roller could be rotated on its own axis, thus straining the ropes until the sufferer's joints were dislocated and eventually separated.
Additionally, once muscle fibers have been stretched past a certain point they lose their ability to contract, thus victims who were released had ineffective muscles as well as problems arising from dislocation.
Because of its mechanically precise, graded operation, it was particularly suited for hard interrogation, as to extract a confession.
One gruesome aspect of being stretched too far on the rack is the loud popping noises made by snapping cartilage, ligaments or bones. Eventually, if the application of the rack is continued, the victim's limbs are ripped right off. One powerful method for putting pressure upon a prisoner was to merely force him to view someone else being subjected to the rack. A person stretched on the rack presented a spectacle of the body in pain.
11. The thumbscrew, or pilliwinks, is a torture instrument which was used in medieval Europe. It is a simple vise, sometimes with protruding studs on the interior surfaces. The victim's thumbs or fingers were placed in the vise and slowly crushed. The thumbscrew was also applied to crush prisoners' toes, while larger, heavier devices based on the same design principle were applied to destroy knees and elbows.
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